Inside Logistics

IATA issues vaccine distribution guidance

To help ensure air cargo industry is ready to support the large-scale handling, transport and distribution of a Covid-19 vaccine


November 16, 2020
by

GENEVA, Switzerland – The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has released guidance to ensure that the air cargo industry is ready to support the large-scale handling, transport and distribution of a Covid-19 vaccine.

IATA’s Guidance for Vaccine and Pharmaceutical Logistics and Distribution provides recommendations for governments and the logistics supply chain in preparation for what will be the largest and most complex global logistics operation ever undertaken.

“Delivering billions of doses of a vaccine that must be transported and stored in a deep-frozen state to the entire world efficiently will involve hugely complex logistical challenges across the supply chain.  While the immediate challenge is the implementation of Covid-19 testing measures to re-open borders without quarantine, we must be prepared for when a vaccine is ready.  This guidance material is an important part of those preparations,” said IATA’s director general and CEO, Alexandre de Juniac.

Temperature control

The guidance discusses the availability of temperature-controlled storage facilities and contingencies when such facilities are not available. The first vaccine manufacturer to apply for regulatory approval requires the vaccine to be shipped and stored in a deep-frozen state, making ultra-cold chain facilities across the supply chain essential.

Some types of refrigerants, such as dry ice, are classified as a dangerous goods and volumes are regulated which adds an additional layer of complexity. Considerations include availability of temperature-controlled facilities and equipment and staff trained to handle time- and temperature-sensitive vaccines.

The guidance also helps to define roles and responsibilities of parties involved in the distribution of vaccines, particularly government authorities and NGOs, to assist safe, fast and equitable distribution as broadly as possible. Timely regulatory approvals and storage and clearance by customs and health authorities will be essential.

Priorities for border processes include introducing fast-track procedures for overflight and landing permits for operations carrying the Covid-19 vaccine and potential tariff relief to facilitate the movement of the vaccine.

IATA emphasizes that governments need to re-establish air connectivity to ensure adequate capacity is available for vaccine distribution, pointing out that the global route network has been reduced dramatically from the pre-Covid 22,000 city pairs.

Security

Vaccines are highly valuable commodities. Arrangements must be in place to ensure that shipments remain secure from tampering and theft. Processes are in place already, but the huge volume of vaccine shipments will require early planning to ensure that they are scalable.

The Guidance was produced with the support of a broad range of partners, including the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations (FIATA), International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), UK Civil Aviation Authority, World Bank, World Customs Organization (WCO) and World Trade Organization (WTO).

The guidance includes a repository of international standards and guidelines related to the transport of vaccines. It will be updated regularly as information is made available to the industry. Accompanying the guidance, IATA established a joint information-sharing forum for stakeholders.